China’s foreign trade policy in the new China period basically presented into two more distinct stages, and the reform and opening up in 1978 is the watershed of these two distinct stages, but also these two very different foreign trade policy, so that China’s economy in the founding of new China began to develop to the scale of today, and then drive our national living standards higher and higher, people’s lives more and more happy.

China’s foreign trade before the reform and opening up

Before the reform and opening up, China’s foreign trade was basically closed. In order to protect the country’s fragile economic system after liberation, the government resolutely chose the way of developing our economy by the state monopoly of foreign trade, which was stipulated in the Common Program of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference in September 1949: “Implementing foreign trade control and adopting the policy of protecting trade The biggest advantage of this government monopoly on foreign trade was the centralization of power, and the country was able to make great strides in the right direction under the wise guidance of Chairman Mao.

With the establishment of the People’s Bank of China and the Ministry of Foreign Trade of the People’s Republic of China and the recovery of customs sovereignty, China’s financial control was truly returned to its own hands. The various privileges previously held by foreign powers in China were abolished and they were allowed to continue to operate; the import and export enterprises of bureaucratic capital were confiscated and the import and export enterprises of national capital were reorganized; the tariffs were set at a much higher level than the tariffs and the GATT, and various restrictions and controls on foreign exchange were imposed. Layers of protection were put on our fragile economic system after the founding of the country to ensure the long-term sustainable development of our economy.

The disengagement from the GATT and the very high tariffs may seem to have caused China to miss a lot of “good opportunities” in terms of economic development, resulting in slow growth of foreign trade; inefficiency of domestic enterprises; inability to better connect with the rest of the world and introduce advanced technology from abroad, and other negative situations, but it is also the abandonment of corresponding opportunities to enable China’s economy to recover in a safer way, to make China’s economy develop gradually in an almost spoiled way, and to reverse the long-standing serious external deficit in one stroke from 1956 until 1977, with only a small deficit in a very few years, ensuring a balanced state of import and export.

China’s foreign trade after reform and opening up

In December 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee China began to implement the policy of internal reform and opening up to the outside world, that is, the reform and opening up that changed the direction of China’s economic development, from 1979 to 2012, China’s economy began to grow rapidly, close to 10% per year on average, the average annual growth rate of export scale from 1978 to 1986 reached 16.3%, and by 2013, China’s The total import and export of goods was US$4.16 trillion, surpassing the US$3.91 trillion officially announced by the United States, becoming the world’s number one goods trading country in one fell swoop.

In 2015, it became the world’s top exporter. The rapid development of foreign trade as a result of reform and opening up has not only promoted the rapid development of China’s economy, but also played a certain role in driving the development of the world economy because of the increasing influence of China in the international arena, which has truly realized the “Great Leap Forward”.

The reform and opening up of China’s foreign trade from a completely closed, centralized into the world economy, decentralized into the hands of individuals, the 1980s “backward” is a more distinctive example. “The term “black cat and white cat, catching a mouse is a good cat”, a different folk proverb, was given a deeper meaning when it was said by the national leaders at a particular time. The term “backhanders” itself is a neutral term, basically all individual merchants can be called “backhanders”, and those who capture business opportunities according to market trends “backhanders”, to a certain extent, is also an important factor in promoting social and economic development, and in order to avoid the government crackdown on “speculation In order to avoid the government’s crackdown on “speculation”, many “backers” have turned their attention to the international market, forming the notorious “international backers”, and these “international backers” The opposite is through the bribery, “back door” to approve the “master”, they exploit the loopholes of the law, digging socialist corner to enrich themselves, but also seriously affect the normal operation of government departments If the government hadn’t cracked down on this kind of “official down” behavior, I don’t know how much of the country’s property these rats would have swallowed.

At the same time, many people smelled the business opportunities brought by the reform and opening up, and chose to leave their original jobs to go into business, many current successful businessmen are at that time began to enter the mall to fight, dare to go to sea at the beginning of the reform and opening up the choice of business people are often the courage to fight, brave innovation, but it is their ability to be stronger than others, to achieve the present glory, but at the same time there are many people who went to the sea in the early days did not succeed because of personal problems, and the correct guidance of reform and opening up did not have any relationship.

The late reform and opening up also gave birth to a large number of state-owned enterprise workers laid off, bringing a great impact on many individuals and families, and employees of state-owned enterprises are also non-agricultural households, and can not directly work in agriculture after being laid off, but can only start a new life by way of re-employment or business, and lead to layoffs because of the rise of a large number of private enterprises and state-owned enterprises can not keep pace with the times, and the reform and opening up is Can not be separated from the relationship, but society is bound to progress, the iron rice bowl is no longer iron is only a matter of time, now the labor contract system is also to verify this point.

The rise of private enterprises can be said to be brought about by the reform and opening up, and they have made great contributions to the development of China’s economy, and they also have a significant role in China’s foreign trade. As a high-density labor processing enterprise, Foxconn Technology Group has once again made the world more aware of “Made in China”.

The influence of national policies on international trade is extremely far-reaching, and China has now become the world’s second largest economy, and the influence of its foreign trade policies is already global, so China’s foreign trade should also keep up with the international pace in a timely manner, and actively analyze the development trends of the global market in order to formulate foreign trade policies that are in line with social development and the requirements of the international market, which in turn can promote the development of our enterprises and ultimately promote the development of our country’s enterprises. The development of China’s enterprises, and ultimately promote the overall development of China, so that China’s economic development can still be healthy and stable development.