Due to the high altitude and thin air, coupled with the reflection of solar radiation on the surface of the ice and snow, the Antarctic continent has become the coldest region in the world, and its average temperature is 20°C lower than that of the North Pole.click here The annual average temperature in the Antarctic continent is -25°C. The annual average temperature in the Antarctic coastal region is about 17 to minus 20 °C; while the annual average temperature in the inland region is minus 40 to minus 50°C; the Antarctic plateau is the coldest, and the annual average temperature is as low as -53 °C. The lowest temperature observed on Earth is -93.2°C, which was recorded in the United States in August 2010. At such low temperatures, ordinary steel will become brittle like glass; if a glass of water is poured into the air, it will turn out to be an ice crystal. The cold of the Antarctic is first and foremost related to the high latitudes where it is located. Due to the high latitudes, there is no sunlight during the long polar night of the year. At the same time, it is related to the incident angle of the sun light. The higher the latitude, the smaller the incident angle of sunlight, and the less solar heat energy absorbed per unit area. The Antarctic is located in the region with the highest latitude on Earth. click here The sun has the smallest angle of incidence, and the sunlight can only be obliquely directed to the surface, while the oblique sunlight has the lowest heat. Moreover, 95% of the surface of the Antarctic continent is covered with white ice and snow, and the reflectivity of ice and snow to sunlight is 80% to 84%, leaving less than 20% of the surface to reach the ground, and this poor little heat is mostly reflected back into space. The high altitude of the Antarctic and the relatively thin air make the heat not easy to store, so the Antarctic is extremely cold.
The Antarctic is not only the coldest place in the world, but also the most windy region in the world. There are 300 wind days with an average of 8 or more wind days per year, and the annual average wind speed is 19.4 meters per second. The maximum wind speed observed at the Mossen station in Australia in 1972 was 82m/s. In France, a hurricane with a wind speed of 100m/s was observed, which is equivalent to three times that of a 12-class typhoon. It is the largest wind speed recorded in the world so far. The reason why the Antarctic storm is so powerful is that the temperature of the snow surface in the Antarctic continent is low, click here and the nearby air is rapidly cooled and contracted to become heavier and the density increases. The east station of Russia tested the world lowest temperature is -89.2℃on July,1983. It is estimated that the lower temperature may exist on the east Antarctic Continent.